Moving Cast Shadows Induce Apparent Motion in Depth
- N218 Elliott Hall, Psychology Department, University of Minnesota, 75 East River Road, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
Phenomenally strong visual illusions are described in which the motion of an object‘s cast shadow determines the perceived 3-D trajectory of the object. Simply adjusting the motion of a shadow is sufficient to induce dramatically different apparent trajectories of the object casting the shadow. Psychophysical results obtained with the use of 3-D graphics are reported which show that: (i) the information provided by the motion of an object's shadow overrides other strong sources of information and perceptual biases, such as the assumption of constant object size and a general viewpoint; (ii) the natural constraint of shadow darkness plays a role in the interpretation of a moving image patch as a shadow, but under some conditions even unnatural light shadows can induce apparent motion in depth of an object; (iii) when shadow motion is caused by a moving light source, the visual system incorrectly interprets the shadow motion as consistent with a moving object, rather than a moving light source. The results support the hypothesis that the human visual system incorporates a stationary light-source constraint in the perceptual processing of spatial layout of scenes.
- Received October 2, 1995.
- Revision received January 13, 1997.
- © 1997 SAGE Publications