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Impact Factor:0.917 | Ranking:Psychology 64 out of 76 | Psychology, Experimental 80 out of 85
Source:2016 Release of Journal Citation Reports, Source: 2015 Web of Science Data

The Missing Sense Modality: The Immune System

  1. Felice L Bedford
    1. Department of Psychology, University of Arizona, 1503 E University Blvd, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA
  1. e-mail: bedford{at}u.arizona.edu


The five senses were handed down by Aristotle. I argue that it has only taken two millennia to recognize that the immune system has been the hidden sensory modality. The immune system completes the range of operation allowing detection of meaningful entities at all distances, from very near to very far. It also withstands the often implicit criteria for being a sense modality. Finally, cross-modal interactions between the immune system and vision and other sense modalities should be possible, opening up new research directions.

  • Received September 9, 2011.
  • Revision received October 7, 2011.
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