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Source:2014 Journal Citation Reports® (Thomson Reuters, 2015)

The Ghost of Helioth and His Stereoscope: The Return of a Phantom

  1. Nicholas J Wade
    1. School of Psychology, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 4HN, Scotland, UK
  1. e-mail: n.j.wade{at}dundee.ac.uk


Among the myths surrounding the invention of the stereoscope, that of Helioth stands as a supreme example of shoddy scholarship and its subsequent dissemination. Helioth was said to have made a simple stereoscope before Wheatstone presented his mirror stereoscope to the public in 1838. There is no evidence of Helioth's existence prior to a report in the mid-twentieth century, and despite attempts to dispel his ghost it has recently resurfaced.

  • Received August 7, 2012.
  • Revision received August 24, 2012.
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